FOUND IN:haemoglobin,cytochrome and catalase.

REQUIRED AMOUNT:US institute of medicine updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in 2001.


EAR is 6.0 mg/day -for 19 yrs and above & RDA is 8.0 mg/day -19 yrs and above.


EAR is 7.9 mg/day -for 14-18,8.1 mg/day-(19-50)above & RDA is 8.0 mg/day -19 and above.



Yes, it belongs to the family Coronaviridae.

The scientific name for coronavirus is Orthocoronavirinae or Coronavirinae. Coronaviruses belong to the family of Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria.They are divided into alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses which infect mammals – and gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses, which primarily infect birds.



Natural penicillins





β-lactamase inhibitorS

Nasturtium Blossom Hummingbird Cake — Surreyfarms. A serene haven in the foothills of Northern California


Here is a delicious cheer me up sweet and gorgeous cake to celebrate spring and all things beautiful. Nasturtium blossom hummingbird cake is a recipe I posted a long while ago that I made again recently. Where do I start to tell the tale of this cake – the cake or about the blooms? Let […]

Nasturtium Blossom Hummingbird Cake — Surreyfarms. A serene haven in the foothills of Northern California

‘Hand to hand to hand’: How Coronavirus Spread Aboard the Diamond Princess — Longreads


“…the ship…provided the world’s best data set on the virus, confirming crucial facts about how the disease spread, especially through asymptomatic carriers.”

‘Hand to hand to hand’: How Coronavirus Spread Aboard the Diamond Princess — Longreads

The dangers of mixing drugs — Lampelina


I have plenty of experience with mixing drugs. Legal, illegal and mostly prescribed ones. I can tell you first hand how dangerous can some of them become when used together. Or how some of them just don’t mix with specific nutrients. So, what happens when you mix drugs? There are also some foods, which can […]

The dangers of mixing drugs — Lampelina




  1. Actin filament: See for micro filament.
  2. Auto some: See for chromosome.
  3. Basal bodies: Located at the base of cilia or flagella.
  4. Cell: Structural, functional and biological unit.
  5. Centriole: 9 pair of scaffold micro tubules.
  6. Centromere: Part of a chromosome that connect the sister chromatids.
  7. Centrosome: Consists of two centrioles which are arranged to right angle to each other.
  8. Cilia: Minute hair like structure, similar to flagella and helps in locomotion.
  9. Cytoplasm: Cytosol Organelles + Cytoplasmic inclusion.
  10. Cytoskeleton: Extend from cell to cytoplasm consists of actin filaments, micro tubules and intermediate filaments that helps in movement of cell.
  11. Chromatids: Thread like strands which divide during cell division and consists of DNA.
  12. Chromosome: Genetic material.
  13. Dictyosome: See for golgi complex.
  14. Diplosomes: Microtubules arranged right angle to each other.
  15. DNA/Deoxyribose nucleic acid: Nucleic acid contains genetic code found in nucleus.
  16. Endoplasmic reticulum: Contain tubules and flattened sacs which some of them are attached with ribosomes to form rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  17. F0-F1 particles: Production of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation takes place.
  18. Flagella: Long, whip like structure consists of micro tubules helps in propelling OR whipping of cell.
  19. Golgi apparatus/Bodies/Complex: Complex of vesicles and folded membrane.
  20. Histone protein: It is an octamer consists of 2 copies each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 wrapped by 146 BP of DNA.
  21. Intermediate filament: Cytoskeletal structures helps in support of plasma membrane when attaching to another cell.
  22. Karyoplasm: See for nucleoplasm.
  23. Lysosome: Digest excess or waste material.
  24. Microfilament: It is a part of cytoskeleton contains actin protein which works in association with myosin protein to assist in muscle movement, cell division and helps to keep organelles intact.
  25. Mitochondrion: Power house of the cell.
  26. mRNA: Messenger RNA is a type of RNA that helps in transportation of proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
  27. Nuclear pore: Channels present in nuclear envelop that allow the movement of substances between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
  28. Nucleoplasm: Semi-aqueous material similar to cytoplasm consists of water, salts, enzymes and organic molecules.
  29. Nucleolus: Largest structure of nucleus and site of ribosome synthesis which involves in interactions and translocation of protein and RNA takes place.
  30. Nucleosome: Structural unit of chromosome consists of two turns of DNA coiled around 8 histone proteins.
  31. Nucleus: Cell brain- contains hereditary information.
  32. Peroxisome: Oxidative bi layer vesicle consists of H2O2
  33. Plasma membrane: Phospholipid bi layer outer covering.
  34. Ribosome: Protein factory/bind mRNA and tRNA to synthesize protein.
  35. RNA/Ribonucleic acid: Found in cytoplasm.
  36. rRNA: Ribosomal RNA is a type of RNA which is a component of ribosome and helps in protein synthesis.
  37. Secretory vesicle: Helps in transport of hormones and neurotransmitters from organelles to specific site where it releases by fusing.
  38. Suicidal bags: See for lysosomes.
  39. tRNA: Transfer RNA is a type of RNA that helps to decode the mRNA sequence into protein.
  40. Vacuole: Multi-functional membrane bound sac.

Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics, derived originally from common moulds known as Penicillin moulds; which includes penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use). Penicillin antibiotics were among the first medications to be effective against many bacterial infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. They are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use.

How to deal with toxic people — Lampelina

Not everybody goes along with everybody. You might be toxic for somebody, while you’re perfectly ok interacting with somebody else. And you don’t even need to have a personality disorder for that. I already wrote about dealing with narcissists, so this time I will focus more on the borderline side. I live with it on […]

How to deal with toxic people — Lampelina